Innermost Sanctum Ruins of Mani-dera Temple －Archaeological Investigation and Reconstruction Study－
The Principal Investigator： ASAKAWA Shigeo Tottori University of Environmental Studies March, 2012
abstract： This is a report of excavation and archaeological study on the innermost sanctum ruins of Mani-dera temple located on Mt.Mani in Tottori city. Mani-dera is a Tendai sect Buddhism temple which has the legend of Sakra devanam Indrat's coming Advent and priest En-nin as the founder. While the present precincts are located at the foot of the mountain, there are the innermost sanctum ruins left near the top. The symbol of innermost sanctum ruins is the huge rock where double storied cave halls were drilled, and the two flat grounds were leveled in front of the huge rock. We excavated four trenches(200㎡) there for four months in 2010. By the excavation, we found many pits and a well remnant in the lower layer, and a large building remnant in the upper layer. According to the chronology of excavated potteries and radiocarbon dating, it is proved that the lower layer was made after 10th century, and the upper layer began after 16th century. We tried to reconstruct doule storied Buddhism hall of the upper layer. Mt.Mani is a part of San-in Kaigan Geopark, but has never been included within San-in Kaigan National Park. Finally we propose that Mt.Mani should not only be added to San-in Kaigan National Park, but also selected as Important Cultural Landscape, and the innermost sanctum ruins of Mani-dera temple should be designated as a historic site.
keywords： worship for huge rocks, asceticism, esoteric Buddhism, Buddhism hall in the rock cave, innermost sanctum, excavation, cultural landscape, reconstruction, environmental archaeology
contents： Chap-1. Background and Purposeｓ of Research Chap-2. History of Mani-dera Temple Chap-3. Excavation for the Innermost Sanctum Ruins of Mani-dera Temple Chap-4. Reconstruction Study on Remnants of the Buddhist Hall in Upper Layer Chap-5. Environmental Archaeological Study on the Innermost Sanctum Ruins of Mani-dera Temple and an Environmental Maintenance Plan Appendixes： Analysis by Physical Science Methods Ａ. Boring Survey Ｂ. Radiocarbon Dating Ｃ. Pollen Analysis and Plant Opal Analysis Ｄ. Identification of Rocks 104